In this paper **(arXiv:1311.0792)** we study Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane, i.e. systems of first-order differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional real Lie algebra of planar Hamiltonian vector fields with respect to a Poisson structure. We provide the complete local classification of Lie-Hamilton systems on the plane and we study new Lie-Hamilton systems of interest which are used to investigate relevant non-autonomous differential equations. In particular, the Milne-Pinney, second-order Kummer-Schwarz, complex Riccati and Buchdahl equations as well as some Lotka-Volterra and nonlinear biomathematical models are analysed from this Lie-Hamilton approach.