Quantum gravity phenomenology at the dawn of the multi-messenger era – A review

The exploration of the universe has recently entered a new era thanks to the multi-messenger paradigm, characterized by a continuous increase in the quantity and quality of experimental data that is obtained by the detection of the various cosmic messengers (photons, neutrinos, cosmic rays and gravitational waves) from numerous origins. They give us information about their sources in the universe and the properties of the intergalactic medium. Moreover, multi-messenger astronomy opens up the possibility to search for phenomenological signatures of quantum gravity. On the one hand, the most energetic events allow us to test our physical theories at energy regimes which are not directly accessible in accelerators; on the other hand, tiny effects in the propagation of very high energy particles could be amplified by cosmological distances. After decades of merely theoretical investigations, the possibility of obtaining phenomenological indications of Planck-scale effects is a revolutionary step in the quest for a quantum theory of gravity, but it requires cooperation between different communities of physicists (both theoretical and experimental). This review (arXiv:2111.05659) is aimed at promoting this cooperation by giving a state-of-the art account of the interdisciplinary expertise that is needed in the effective search of quantum gravity footprints in the production, propagation and detection of cosmic messengers.

A video-abstract of this review is available here.

Interplay between spacetime curvature, speed of light and quantum deformations of relativistic symmetries

Recent work showed that κ-deformations can describe the quantum deformation of several relativistic models that have been proposed in the context of quantum gravity phenomenology. Starting from the Poincaré algebra of special-relativistic symmetries, one can toggle the curvature parameter Λ, the Planck scale quantum deformation parameter κ and the speed of light parameter c to move to the well-studied κ-Poincaré algebra, the (quantum) (A)dS algebra, the (quantum) Galilei and Carroll algebras and their curved versions. In this review (arXiv:2110.04867), we survey the properties and relations of these algebras of relativistic symmetries and their associated noncommutative spacetimes, emphasizing the nontrivial effects of interplay between curvature, quantum deformation and speed of light parameters.

Total Collisions in the N-Body Shape Space

In this paper, we discuss the total collision singularities of the gravitational N-body problem on shape space. Shape space is the relational configuration space of the system obtained by quotienting ordinary configuration space with respect to the similarity group of total translations, rotations, and scalings. For the zero-energy gravitating N-body system, the dynamics on shape space can be constructed explicitly and the points of total collision, which are the points of central configuration and zero shape momenta, can be analyzed in detail. It turns out that, even on shape space where scale is not part of the description, the equations of motion diverge at (and only at) the points of total collision. We construct and study the stratified total-collision manifold and show that, at the points of total collision on shape space, the singularity is essential. There is, thus, no way to evolve solutions through these points. This mirrors closely the big bang singularity of general relativity, where the homogeneous-but-not-isotropic cosmological model of Bianchi IX shows an essential singularity at the big bang. A simple modification of the general-relativistic model (the addition of a stiff matter field) changes the system into one whose shape-dynamical description allows for a deterministic evolution through the singularity. We suspect that, similarly, some modification of the dynamics would be required in order to regularize the total collision singularity of the N-body model.

Through a Black Hole Singularity

In this paper (arXiv:2109.10753) we show that the Kantowski-Sachs model of a Schwarzschild black hole interior can be slightly generalized in order to accommodate spatial metrics of different orientations, and in this formulation the equations of motion admit a variable redefinition that makes the system regular at the singularity. This system will then traverse the singularity in a deterministic way (information will be conserved through it), and evolve into a time-reversed and orientation-flipped Schwarzschild white hole interior.

Fuzzy worldlines with κ-Poincaré symmetries

This paper (arXiv:2109.09699) presents a novel approach to study the properties of models with quantum-deformed relativistic symmetries which relies on a noncommutative space of worldlines rather than the usual noncommutative spacetime. In this setting, spacetime can be reconstructed as the set of events, that are identified as the crossing of different worldlines. We lay down the basis for this construction for the κ-Poincaré model, analyzing the fuzzy properties of κ-deformed time-like worldlines and the resulting fuzziness of the reconstructed events.

Noncommutative (A)dS and Minkowski spacetimes from quantum Lorentz subgroups

In this new paper (arXiv:2108.02683) the complete classification of classical r-matrices generating quantum deformations of the (3+1)-dimensional (A)dS and Poincaré groups such that their Lorentz sector is a quantum subgroup is presented. It is found that there exists three classes of such r-matrices, one of them being a novel two-parametric one. The (A)dS and Minkowskian Poisson homogeneous spaces corresponding to these three deformations are explicitly constructed in both local and ambient coordinates. Their quantization is performed, thus giving rise to the associated noncommutative spacetimes, that in the Minkowski case are naturally expressed in terms of quantum null-plane coordinates, and they are always defined by homogeneous quadratic algebras. Finally, non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits giving rise to novel Newtonian and Carrollian noncommutative spacetimes are also presented.

Cayley-Klein Lie bialgebras: Noncommutative spaces, Drinfel’d doubles and kinematical applications

In this paper (arXiv:2106.03817), the Cayley-Klein (CK) formalism is applied to the real algebra so(5) by making use of four graded contraction parameters describing in a unified setting 81 Lie algebras, which cover the (anti-)de Sitter, Poincaré, Newtonian and Carrollian algebras. Starting with the Drinfel’d-Jimbo real Lie bialgebra for so(5) together with its Drinfel’d double structure, we obtain the corresponding CK bialgebra and the CK r-matrix coming from a Drinfel’d double. As a novelty, we construct the (first-order) noncommutative CK spaces of points, lines, 2-planes and 3-hyperplanes, studying their structural properties. By requiring to deal with real structures, it comes out that there exist 63 specific real Lie bialgebras together with their sets of four noncommutative spaces. Furthermore, we find 14 classical r-matrices coming from Drinfel’d doubles, obtaining new results for the de Sitter so(4,1) and anti-de Sitter so(3,2) and for some of their contractions. These geometric results are exhaustively applied onto the (3+1)D kinematical algebras, not only considering the usual (3+1)D spacetime but also the 6D space of lines. We establish different assignations between the geometrical CK generators and the kinematical ones which convey physical identifications for the CK contraction parameters in terms of the cosmological constant/curvature Λ and speed of light c. We finally obtain four classes of kinematical r-matrices together with their noncommutative spacetimes and spaces of lines, comprising all κ-deformations as particular cases.

Poisson-Hopf deformations of Lie-Hamilton systems revisited: deformed superposition rules and applications to the oscillator algebra

In this paper (arXiv:2101.00616), the formalism for Poisson-Hopf (PH) deformations of Lie-Hamilton systems is refined in one of its crucial points concerning applications, namely the obtention of effective and computationally feasible PH deformed superposition rules for prolonged PH deformations of Lie-Hamilton systems. The two new notions here proposed are a generalization of the standard superposition rules and the concept of diagonal prolongations for Lie systems, which are consistently recovered under the non-deformed limit. Using a technique from superintegrability theory, we obtain a maximal number of functionally independent constants of the motion for a generic prolonged PH deformation of a Lie-Hamilton system, from which a simplified deformed superposition rule can be derived. As an application, explicit deformed superposition rules for prolonged PH deformations of Lie-Hamilton systems based on the oscillator Lie algebra h_4 are computed. Moreover, by making use that the main structural properties of the book subalgebra b_2 of h_4 are preserved under the PH deformation, we consider prolonged PH deformations based on b_2 as restrictions of those for h_4-Lie-Hamilton systems, thus allowing the study of prolonged PH deformations of the complex Bernoulli equations, for which both the constants of the motion and the deformed superposition rules are explicitly presented.

The group structure of dynamical transformations between quantum reference frames

Recently, it was shown that when reference frames are associated to quantum systems, the transformation laws between such quantum reference frames need to be modified to take into account the quantum and dynamical features of the reference frames. This led to a relational description of the phase space variables of the quantum system of which the quantum reference frames are part. While such transformations were shown to be symmetries of the system’s Hamiltonian, the question remained unanswered as to whether they enjoy a group structure, similar to that of the Galilei group relating classical reference frames in quantum mechanics. In this work (arXiv:2012.15769), we identify the canonical transformations on the phase space of the quantum systems comprising the quantum reference frames, and show that these transformations close a group structure defined by a Lie algebra, which is different from the usual Galilei algebra of quantum mechanics. We further find that the elements of this new algebra are in fact the building blocks of the quantum reference frames transformations previously identified, which we recover. Finally, we show how the transformations between classical reference frames described by the standard Galilei group symmetries can be obtained from the group of transformations between quantum reference frames by taking the zero limit of the parameter that governs the additional noncommutativity introduced by the quantum nature of inertial transformations.

Exact closed-form solution of a modified SIR model

In this new paper (arXiv:2007.16069) the exact analytical solution in closed form of a modified SIR system where recovered individuals are removed from the population is presented. In this dynamical system the populations S(t) and R(t) of susceptible and recovered individuals are found to be generalized logistic functions, while infective ones I(t) are given by a generalized logistic function times an exponential, all of them with the same characteristic time. The dynamics of this modified SIR system is analysed and the exact computation of some epidemiologically relevant quantities is performed. The main differences between this modified SIR model and original SIR one are presented and explained in terms of the zeroes of their respective conserved quantities. Moreover, it is shown that the modified SIR model with time-dependent transmission rate can be also solved in closed form for certain realistic transmission rate functions.